*Metabolism slows down
*Fat cells contain oestrogen which it is very keen to hold on to
*Ratio of testosterone can be relatively high as oestrogen and progesterone decline
*Fat is now redistributed to abdomen (like a man’s stomach!)
Women entering perimenopause tend to gain about 0.5kg (roughly 1lb) a year. That means the average woman can expect to put on more than a stone between the ages of 45 and 60. The good news? According to experts, it’s not inevitable. But what causes menopausal weight gain and bloating, and what can you do about it? Does HRT help or hinder? And will that pesky bloating ever go away? Find out how to beat the stats with our complete guide to menopause and weight gain.
Menopause weight gain: why it happens
Getting older and becoming less active causes loss of muscle mass, which slows down the metabolism. According to experts, it’s this, rather than the menopause itself, that bears the brunt of the responsibility for weight gain in middle age. However, fluctuating hormone levels also play their part. New evidence suggests that plummeting oestrogen levels may encourage us to eat more and exercise less, lowers the metabolic rate and increases insulin resistance, making it more difficult for our bodies to deal with sugars and starches.
Our hormones also influence fat distribution. Perimenopause weight gain is often associated with the laying down of fat around the abdomen and internal organs, as opposed to the hips and thighs. Feeling stressed? Stress hormones like cortisol promote the growth of that pesky spare tyre. It’s not simply a cosmetic issue, either – the more inches you add to your waistline, the higher your risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes and even certain cancers.
Whether or not you gain weight, you’re likely to feel bloated and uncomfortable during the menopause and perimenopause. Erratic hormone levels encourage water retention and intestinal gas, while reductions in bile (which keeps the intestines lubricated) can cause constipation, resulting in further bloating. Bloating can also be a side effect of HRT.
Minimise bloating by swapping processed carbohydrates like white bread, pasta and rice for whole grains, drinking plenty of water and herbal teas (peppermint, spearmint and fennel fight fluid retention) and cutting back on salt, caffeine and alcohol. Try switching ‘gassy’ foods like broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, sprouts, peas, beans, onions, potatoes, pears, soft cheese and oats for foods that reduce gas, such as grapes, bananas, watermelon, watercress, cucumber, peanut butter, eggs, yoghurt and hard cheese. Cooking with hot peppers and black pepper can also help. A gentle post-dinner walk or yoga session may help to move gas around the digestive system, relieving the symptoms of bloating.
HRT and weight gain
Many women attribute their weight gain to hormone replacement therapy medication. However, according to experts, this is a myth. Although HRT may promote fluid retention and bloating, it can actually increase your resting metabolic rate and help you avoid or lose the belly fat associated with perimenopausal weight gain.
What you can do about menopause weight gain
So can you avoid, curtail or reverse menopausal weight gain? According to experts, the answer is a resounding ‘yes’.
Most women need about 200 fewer calories a day in their fifties than they did in their thirties and forties. Pick more filling, nutritious foods and eat smaller, more frequent meals to keep your metabolism revved up and your blood sugar stable. Try to eat a small meal or snack including protein and complex carbohydrates every 3-4 hours, limiting alcohol and sugar.
Staying (or getting) active is also key. The waistlines of those who do just 10 minutes of aerobic activity a day are, on average, 6 inches narrower than the waistlines of those who do no exercise at all. Want to age-proof your figure? Try to reduce the amount of time you spend sitting down and combine aerobic activities like walking and swimming with strength-training exercise. Remember, the more lean muscle you have, the more calories your body will burn at rest.
Long-term weight gain
The good news? That pesky bloated belly should deflate as you go through the menopause. The bad news? Reductions in oestrogen and muscle mass will leave you liable to weight gain. Don’t panic though: you can still lose weight after the menopause – simply follow the tips above. Eat right, move more and whittle that waistline away.
Excerpts taken from Women&Home by Samantha Simmonds